South African student protesters and police clashed in renewed violence in Johannesburg on Monday (Oct 10) as attempts to re-open Wits University descended into running battles on campus.
Protesters throwing rocks were dispersed by riot police using tear gas, rubber bullets and stun grenades as pressure ratchets up on campuses across the country over tuition fees.
Unrest has erupted regularly at South African universities in recent months, with Wits and other institutions forced to close temporarily over the last three weeks.
"The students started throwing sizeable rocks that could have maimed or killed people," Wits said in a statement after trying to re-open on Monday.
"Police dispersed the crowd using stun grenades, tear gas and water cannons. Two arrests were made this morning and some minor injuries have been reported."
The violence, which also involved campus security guards, erupted outside Wits' Great Hall auditorium, the scene of several recent clashes.
Student leaders said they had warned authorities that resuming lectures on Monday would result in another bout of clashes.
"We pleaded with the council of the university in the early hours of this morning to close down the academic programme and call off the police," Wits student representative Fasiha Hassan told ENCA news.
"If they had called off police, we wouldn't be in this situation. There was no need for them to open fire."