BARCELONA: Pro-independence protesters obstructed major roads and a high-speed railway line in Spain's Catalonia region on Monday (Oct 1), one year after a banned referendum on secession marred by police violence.
"Everything began on October 1 and everything goes back to October 1," the region's separatist president Quim Torra said in a ceremony in Sant Julia de Ramis in northern Catalonia on a stage flanked with a large black and white banner that read "No forgetting, no forgiving."
Some 10 kilometres (six miles) away in Girona, hundreds of activists, many covering their faces with scarves, occupied high-speed railway tracks.
Central streets in Barcelona and Lleida were blocked, as was the AP-7 motorway, south of Barcelona, and A2 linking Barcelona to Madrid, images on Catalan TV showed.
The high-speed rail service linking Figueres, Girona and Barcelona "was interrupted" since the "tracks in Girona are occupied," Spanish state-owned rail operator Renfe said on Twitter.
Some three hours later, they left the tracks and the service was restored, it tweeted.
Activists also took away the Spanish flag from Catalonia's regional government building in Girona and replaced it with red, yellow and blue separatist flags.
'DAMAGED FROM SPAIN'S REPUTATION'
The protests were called online by a grassroots group calling itself the Committees for the Defence of the Republic (CDRs), founded to help stage last year's banned referendum and now demanding a clean break with the Spanish state.
"A year ago we voted for independence ... Let's act," the CDRs tweeted.
In his speech, Torra praised their actions, saying they were "doing well in putting on the pressure."
Already on Saturday, Barcelona was the scene of unrest, with 24 people injured and six detained when separatists clashed with police.
They were taking part in a demonstration called to counter a rally by police paying tribute to colleagues deployed to prevent the 2017 Catalan independence referendum.
The Catalan government, then led by Carles Puigdemont, on Oct 1, 2017, pushed ahead with a referendum on independence for the region despite it having been deemed illegal by the Spanish courts.
The vote was marred by a violent police crackdown on polling stations.
Even if it was illegal and therefore non-binding, 2.3 million people cast their ballots out of 5.5 million eligible voters, 90 per cent of whom voted to break from Spain. Opponents of independence largely boycotted the vote.
In a radio interview, the spokeswoman for the Socialist government in Madrid, Isabel Celaa, said the referendum had been "illegal" and had no "legal consequence."
But she said the sometimes violent police intervention to impede the vote - as ordered by Spain's then conservative government - was a mistake.
She said the footage of police charging at voters -even if some of it was later found to be false - "seriously damaged Spain's reputation" abroad.
After the Catalan government declared unilateral independence on Oct 27, Madrid swiftly sacked the Catalan government, prompting several key figures to flee abroad, including Puigdemont. Others were jailed.
In total, 13 separatist leaders have been charged with rebellion, nine of whom are in preventative custody in Spain awaiting trial, while four others are in self-exile in Belgium, Scotland and Switzerland.